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Linux Ubuntu Terminal Commands: Key Element for Beginners

Linux ubuntu terminal commands, a very useful and necessary tools and weapon for quick response and action in the world of Hacking and Security. However, learning terminal commands don’t necessarily success but it’ll help you alot to be successfull. This article will guide you through some of the essential terminal commands that every Ubuntu user should know. Whether you’re a novice or looking to refresh your skills, these commands will help you navigate and manage your system more efficiently.

Why Use the Terminal?

The Linux ubuntu terminal might seem daunting at first, but it offers several advantages:

  • Efficiency: Many tasks can be performed faster via commands than through a graphical user interface (GUI).
  • Control: The terminal provides more granular control over your system.
  • Resource Light: It consumes fewer system resources compared to running GUI-based applications.

Basic Navigation Commands

Followin are the some basic and important Linux ubuntu terminal commands that everyone should know:

  1. pwd (Print Working Directory)
    1. Displays the current directory you are in.
  2. ls (List)
    1. It is used to list directories, files in the present directly .
  3. cd (Change Directory)
    1. Changes the current directory.
  4. mkdir (Make Directory)
    1. Creates a new directory.
  5. rmdir (Remove Directory)
    1. Removes an empty directory.
  6. rm (Remove)
    1. Deletes files or directories.
    1. Remove a directory and its contents recursively
  7. touch
    1. Use to create a file.
  8. cp (Copy)
    1. Copies files or directories.
    1. Copy directories recursively
  9. mv (Move)
    1. Moves or renames files or directories.

Viewing and Editing Files

  1. cat (Concatenate)
    • Displays the contents of a file.
  2. less
    • Views the content of a file one screen at a time.
  3. head
    • Displays the first few lines of a file.
  4. tail
    • Displays the last few lines of a file.
  5. nano
    • Opens the Nano text editor to edit a file.

System Information and Management

  1. uname
    • Displays system information.
  2. top
    • Displays real-time system processes and resource usage.
  3. df (Disk Free)
    • Displays disk space usage.
  4. du (Disk Usage)
    • Displays disk usage of files and directories.
  5. free
    • Displays memory usage.

Network Commands

  1. ping
    • Tests the network connection to a host.
  2. ifconfig
    • Displays or configures network interfaces (requires superuser privileges).
  3. wget
    • Downloads files from the internet.
  4. curl
    • Transfers data from or to a server.

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Package Management

  1. apt-get
    • Manages packages using the APT package manager.
    • Updates package list
    • Upgrades all packages
    • Installs a package
    • Removes a package:
    • Removes unnecessary packages.
  2. dpkg
    • Manages Debian packages directly.
    • Installs a package
    • Removes a package.

File Permissions and Ownership

  1. chmod (Change Mode)
    • Changes file permissions.
  2. chown (Change Owner)
    • Changes file ownership.

Searching and Finding

  1. find
    • Searches for files and directories.
  2. grep
    • Searches within files for a specific pattern.
  3. locate
    • Finds files by name (requires updatedb to be run periodically).

Advanced File Operations

  1. tar (Tape Archive)
    • Creates and extracts archive files.
    • Create an archive
    • Extract an archive
    • Create a compressed archive
    • Extract a compressed archive
  2. zip/unzip
    • Compresses and decompresses files.
    • Create a zip file
    • Extract a zip file

Process Management

  1. ps (Process Status)
    • Displays currently running processes.
  2. kill
    • Terminates a process by its PID.
  3. killall
    • Terminates processes by name.
  4. bg (Background)
    • Resumes a suspended job in the background.
  5. fg (Foreground)
    • Brings a background job to the foreground.

User Management

  1. adduser
    • Adds a new user.
  2. deluser
    • Deletes a user.
  3. passwd
    • Changes a user’s password.
  4. whoami
    • Displays the current logged-in user.


Mastering the Ubuntu terminal commands can significantly enhance your efficiency and control over the system. The commands outlined above form the foundation of many common tasks you will perform on a daily basis. As you become more comfortable with these commands, you can explore more advanced options and functionalities, further unlocking the potential of your Ubuntu system. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced user, a solid grasp of terminal commands is an invaluable skill in the Linux world. Happy computing!

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